Unhyeongung

- Unhyeongung, The hall of Korean royal family culture -

Buildings

Sujiksa (守直舍)

Sujiksan, located on the right side of the main gate of Unhyeongung, was the residence of security and building managers of Unhyeongung. As Heungseondaewongu’s power became greater, his security became a necessity and security soldiers were dispatched from the royal palace. Currently, visitors can view artifacts from daily life utilities such as a furnace, furniture and lamps inside Sujiksa.

Noandang (老安堂)

Noandang is a T-shaped building that consists of six sections on the front, three sections on the east side, one section of yangkan in the front, four sections of dorikan, and yeonghwaru (side floor) connecting ondolbang (floor heating room), which consisted of three Yangkan sections and three Dorikan sections in the rear and rear flooring. The body of the house consists of the four sections of the main floored hall and two sections of ondolbang in the west. The extreme west section is toekan while the front and back also have toekan. The foundation consists of the main flooring space. The front and the rear of the master bedroom is made of Jangdaeseok Saebaoldae and Yeonghwaru (side floor), Jangdaeseok Dubeoldae. The foundation stone is square in shape while the upper part is slightly narrower than the lower part. For the foundation of the side floor area, a pillar type foundation stone is raised on the lower floor of numaru.

The pillars of both pyeongju and goju are square with small columns. The corner is angled obliquely. The capital part has four sides fitted by crossing beams and buttresses. On it a beam is put crossed. This building is partly a sorusujang type. Umulmaru (checker-shaped floor) is installed in the main flooring space and the side small room. Umulmaru is the structure between which Janggwiteul is placed on a right angle with tonggwiteul placed between Janggwiteul cross-wise to form a checkered shape. Two methods were used to install makjang: makdeopjang, where the grooves of the tongwiteul are fit together and nailed down, and eunhyeoldeopjan, where makjang is fitted from the bottom soldae installed on the bottom of teokpanjari, all held in place by nails. Jangdaeseok gomaki is installed in the interval between the lower base of the servant rooms. Steel ventilation is installed between the base and stepping stones.

For the house framing, the girder is crossed between the nejingoju (column) of Jeonhu, which is the normal way of a building consisting of Jeonhukan. On toekan, toeryang is put between oejinpyeongju and nejinpyeongju. Jungdori is posited on the upper part of goju, in the middle of jongbu pandaegong and is raised to support jongdori. The entire structure is called igojuoryang. Ddeunchangbang crosses the lower part of the jongdori prop. Soro is inserted between Ddeunchangbang and Jangyeo. The protruding section of the rear northeast is hung to toekan in the east and daeryang is hung between the west side pyeongju and nejingoju. It consists of ilgojuoryang. The numaru part that protrudes to the south side consists of three ryangs.

The eaves are single eaves with rafters. The frontal side and some of the south side of both east and west have a pent-roof. Hip rafters are all decorated with seonja and the tip of the eaves is processed with parallel rafters. The pent-roof is inserted onto a rectangular frame after placement of the board and the roof is covered with a galvanized metal. Every five or six rafters, a buttress is installed and steel is installed to fillet.

The roof is paljak-shaped with four gabled sides. Two valleys cut in the center make drainage possible. The gable walls are blank. The center of the west side is decorated with octagonal outlines. The remaining three gable walls are bat-shaped. Bats symbolize prosperity and happiness because the Chinese character “bok” meaning “bat” sounds similar to “bok” meaning prosperity. Bats are called “Cheonseo”, which means a bird of the heaven, or “Seonseo”, which means a bird of the gods. The shape of a bat is used for everyday products, painting, crafts, furniture, and architecture.

Norakdang (老樂堂)

The main body of Norakdang, with 10 sections on the front, has 3 sections of the sides connected with Namhaenggak by an extension of 1 section of Dongkan and 2 sections of Seokan to the south. The 3 sections at the east of the building and 2 sections at the north protrude to form a “一” shaped building. Room arrangements consists of the center, where there is a three-section main floor, two sections of dondol doritong in the east and the west, and one kitchen area. These are all arranged symmetrically. Ondongbang and the main flooring space have toekan and wooden flooring in the front. Three sections of the main flooring space, 1 ondonlbang at the west and 2 ondolbang at the east all have traditional Korean fittings. The back side of the main flooring and the East ondolbang both have taekan and wooden flooring. This building composition is the same as the floor plan of the royal palaces. The backside of the building has toemaru (small wooden floor) except the east protruding side. The 3 sections of the west and the main flooring space have an exposed passage. The remaining space of the east has traditional Korean fittings. A hand rail is installed in the passage. The tip space of the east is made of toekan of half side of a kan. This passage leads to Norakdang, Nahyanggak and Noandang in the South and to Bukhyanggak of Narakdang in the North.

The 3 sections of the north of the Dongcheukmyeon has a “toe” that makes exit and entrance easy. It also has a handrail. The one remaining section among the bokdogak that connected Yanggwan inside the current Duksung Women’s University protruded to the east side. It was demolished during renovation in 1864.

As for the frontal doritong of jukan, the first West space is biggest (3,080mm) and the last space in the East is narrowest (1,530mm). The spaces between them are 2,460mm-2.476mm size. As for the West yangtong, the 2 kans in the South are 2,470mm and 2,465mm, respectively. The main structures are 2,780mm, 2,468mm, 2,782mm, which means the main space is a bit smaller. As the main flooring space, the frontal and back spaces are 1,535mm and 1,547mm. Eokan is 4,948mm. Two spaces that protrude to the north of the east backside are 2,477mm and 1,548mm.

The front and back side of the main body of gidan consists of three parts with the two parts located in the upper section exposed. All columns are square in shape, and has a bit of minheulrim and bitbojeopgi with cogging. The cornerstone is quadrate and the upper section is slightly smaller than the lower. The main wooden floor and toekan are checkered and the toemaru flooring is jangmaru. Umulmaru is a structure in which Janggwiteul is installed between the columns at right angles with tonggwiteul placed between Janggwiteul on a diagonal, forming a checkered pattern.

The wall structure consists of plaster and jibyeokjangja walls. The latter is a structure where a plastered wall or meoreum is installed in the interior wall of an ondolbang. The lower part of the servant rooms cornerstone is installed with gomaki of jeondol. The space that has a stepping stone of the frontal pyeongjuyeol fills the lower portion of gwiteul of the floor. Steel ventilation is installed between the stepping stone and the foundation stone. In the west side, a fireproof wall is installed below jungbang.

The head section of the columns is four trigram shapes with cross-shaped ikgong and changbang. Judo is placed on the top overlaid with toryang, which is called choikdongyang. Pyeongju and goju both have a Gongpu type. Ikgong is a fish-shaped ikgong. Currently, only the Norakdang of Unhyeongung has the gongpo type.

The frame of the house includes a girder crossed between the nejingoju (column) of Jeonhu, which is a normal way of a building that consists of Jeonhukan. On toekan, toeryang is placed between oejinpyeongju and nejinpyeongju. Jungdori is posited on the upper part of goju, in the middle of jongbu pandaegong is raised to support jongdori. The entire structure is called igojuoryang. Ddeunchangbang crosses the lower part of the jongdori prop. Soro is inserted between Ddeunchangbang and Jangyeo. The protruding section of the rear northeast side is hung to toekan in the east side and daeryang is hung between the west side pyeongju and nejingoju. It consists of ilgojuoryang. The ceiling of Norakdang is decorated with a checkered shaped, jibyeokja and lotus flowers. The checkered shape is made by installing a banja frame between the girders and hajungdori in the main wooden flooring space. Jibanja, made from traditional Korean paper, is used for ondolbang and part of the wooden floor spaces. The lotus-shaped ceiling is used for only the wooden floor section.

The eaves are double eaves with rafters only. The front and some parts of the back are pent-roofed. The hip rafters are all decorated with seonja and gajibuyeon is used. ㄱ-shaped eaves are the parallel rafter. The protruding section of the front side of the east and west is made of pakgo eaves.

Both sides of the main body of the roof are built as gables. The east and west sides protruding to the south have a batbae roof. The protruding section of the northeast side of the rear has a paljak roof. The roof Hoecheomgol has a row of sukiwa (embrex) in the center to allow drainage. The end of the imbrex is finished with waguto. The tip of the angle rafter, the center part and tip of neasae of hapgakbu, the center and tip of naesae of pakgongbu and a part of gosap of heocheomgol all use maksae and naerimsae. The hapgak walls are all made of jeonbeokdolchijang (piled bricks). The hapgak wall of the west side of the main frame has an octagonal frame in the center and is patterned. This hapgak wall is installed in the ondolbang in the west in the rear and in one in the east. The lower part of the east is built with granite. Bricks are piled on top. Simplified blocks made of wooden materials such as dori and gongpo are placed on the top.

The tile roof covers its top with two yeonga attached. The chimney of the west ondolbang is built in the same style as that of the east with one difference: it is made of red bricks and has one more yeonga attached.

The handrails are flat and 亞 shaped. The ood polishing techniques used for the eumji poles, handrails, hayeop, and dolrandae are very sophisticated. Saldae is made of concave eungmili and hayeop is engraved with lotus blossoms. Dolrandae is almost, but not quite, round. The wonderful carpentry forms an easy grip.

The eomji column and handrail were stood on nanganjibang. Jungbang is linked between eumji columns on nangandongja. Hayeop, located in nangandongja on jungbang, holds dorandae hung between eomji columns. The eomji column is a 60mm square with the top decorated with a flower bud. Nangandongja is 42mm×40mm. The diameter of the narrow side of dolrandae is 37mm and the wider side, 41mm, jungbang, 60mm×47mm, and saldae, 14mm×33mm. Saldae has two choks that fit the nanganjibang and eomji columns and nangandongja and one chok that fits saldae as well. The width of a chok is 8mm×9mm, while the length of one chok is 6m and that of two choks, 13 - 14mm. The four sides of the chok are cut on a slight slant so that they are easily inserted into each other.

Irodang (二老堂)

Irodang is a Chinese character meaning a nine-shaped building. Its original plan was for 7 sections in the front part and 7 sections of the side parts. The additional section on the west gives this building 8 sections in the front. As for the room floor plan, Nacheukchae has ondolbang in the west, three sections of the central wooden floor, another ondolbang in the east, and toekan used as a passage in the end of the east. The bokdogak in the south leads to Norakdang through Bukhyeonggak. The front of the main wooden floor and ondolbang in the east has a toekan that has sabunhap door and pyeongjuyeol. Dongcheukchae has ondolbang in the east and another ondolbang leading to toekan, a banchim (lower furnace), and another ondolbang in the north and toekan. Except for 2 sections in the north, every room has a small wooden floor outside. There is one section of bathrooms in the third section of bukdan in the north.

As the frontal doritong of jukan, the first section of the west is 3,073mm, which is the largest and the seventh space, the last space of the east is 1,545mm, the smallest. The in-between space is 5 sections, with a size of 2,457mm - 2,468mm. As for the jukan of the seocheukmyeon, the first space of the front is 2,785mm. The remaining 6 sections are between 2,430mm to 2,465mm. Ryangtong of namcheukchae and dongcheukchae is 2 sections and that of seocheukchae and bukcheukchae, one section. The frontal toekan of yangdong of namcheukchae is 1,545mm and the back space, 3,673mm.

The corner stone is quadrate shaped and its upper part is slightly smaller than the lower. The column of pyeongju and goju is square and gabled. The corner is on an oblique angle. The column head has a dovetail joint that inserts bo and jangyeo with dori is on its top. Partially, it is a sorosujangjib that inserts soro to pyeongjuyeol.

The main wooden floor and toekan is in a checkered pattern. The additional floor is jangmaru. However, toemaru, used as the passage to the south east side, is made of jangmaru. A checkered patterned floor is installed by inserting makjang from below, placing soldae in the teoddan site in the lower part and nailing them together. This installation method is called “eumhyeoldeopjang.” The wall structure consists of plastered and jibyeokjangja walls. The latter is a structure in which plastered walls or meoreum are installed in the interior wall of an ondolbang. The lower part of the servant rooms cornerstone is installed with gomaki of jeondol. The area with a stepping stone at the frontal pyeongjuyeol fills the lower part of the floor gwiteul. Steel ventilation is installed beside the foundation stone. A divination sign is engraved in this ventilation.
Regarding the gagum the Chinese character for nine-shaped, nacheukchae consists of 1 goju 5 ryang, dongdeukchae, pyeong 3 ryang, seocheukchae and bukcheukcha,3 ryang. Namcheukchae hangs toeryang between the frontal pyeongju and najingoju and a girder between najingoju and the back pyeongju, with jongbu between dongjaju on the gojumeori and the girder. Ddeunchangbang crosses the lower part of the jongdori prop. Soro is inserted between Ddeunchangbang and Jangyeo. Dongcheukchae hangs toeryang between the exterior pyeongju and naejingoju, a girder between the naejingoju and middle pyeongju, and jongbo between the dongjaju on the gojumeori and the girder. The upper sections of goju and dongjaju have jungdori.

A rafter is hung horizontally between this jungdori. Seocheukchae and bukcheukchae have the same architectural style although the main space of bokan is different. Here the girder between the frontal and rear pyeong is crossed, and pandaegong is raised in the center of the girder and supports jongdori.

All four exterior sides and the four middle sides of the eaves are single eaves. All the exterior and interior sides have a pent roof except the connection to bokdogak in the south east side. All exterior angle rafters are decorated by seonja and the eaves of the hoecheum section are all parallel rafters. A pent-roof is inserted onto a rectangular frame after placing the board and on galvanized metal covers the roof. Every five or six rafters, a buttress is installed and steel is installed to fillet. As for the roof, southeast and southwest corners of namcheukchae, and northeast side corner of dongcheukchae are paljak roof where hapgak is installed. The northwest corner is ujingak roof where the tip of the angle rafter and the ridge are connected. Two valleys cut in the central hoecheomgol allow for drainage. The tip of the channel tiles is finished by waguto but for the tip of the hip of the angle rafter as well as the central and tip part among the neosae of hapgak, amksae and naerimsae are used. A chimmey is installed in the middle, west side, east side and rear, respectively. The four sides of the toemaru and toemaru in the east side have handrails. All handrails are gyonan but their height and shapes differ. By installing a folded floor in the passage to naejeong from the exit of the west kitchen among the back floor of naejeong, the small floors located in the south and north are connected.